China as early as more than two thousand years ago began to cultivate konjac, eating history is also quite long, legend has it that a long time ago, Sichuan Mount Emei Taoist, with konjac tuber starch production of snow konjac tofu, brown yellow, its shape resembles a porous sponge, delicious taste, flavor, for Mount Emei a treasure. Later, konjac spread from China to Japan, loved by the Japanese, almost every family must eat every meal, until now is still the most popular Japanese folk elegant food, and the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare also clearly stipulates that primary and secondary school students must have konjac food in the meal. Japan is now the world's largest consumer of konjac food.
Konjac, also known as konjac, is a perennial herb that grows in mountains between 250 and 2500 meters above sea level. Konjac has special requirements for growing environment, mainly distributed in Southeast Asia and Africa and other places, the Americas and Europe has not been recorded planting. In terms of output and scale, konjac is mainly distributed in China, Japan, Myanmar, Vietnam, Indonesia and other countries. Japan has more than 1500 years of planting and eating history, more than 100 years of fine powder processing history, while China has more than 2000 years of folk planting history, but the real fine powder processing only began in the mid-1980s.
According to compendium of Materia Medica, our ancestors used konjac to cure diseases more than 2,000 years ago. Konjac contains amino acids, a variety of mineral trace elements and rich food fiber, konjac low heat, low fat, low sugar, obesity, hypertension, diabetes can be said to be a kind of first class not only satiate, but also healthy food.
Our country folk planting and processing edible konjac has 200 years of history, but before only in a few mountainous areas sporadic food, in the past more than 20 years, with the development of economy, people's living standards improve, diet from the past full nutrition type to the present food health care type, konjac food industry has a greater development. China now has 15 provinces began to scale cultivation and processing edible konjac. Konjac is also eaten in many countries around the world. Among them, Japan is the most abundant, with an average of 0.6Kg of konjac food per person per day. In the mid-1990s, it was widely believed that the cultivation, processing and research level of Konjac in China was at least 15 years behind that in Japan. But in recent years, the domestic increased the intensity of konjac research, konjac processing technology continues to improve, a variety of professional equipment continues to improve, the quality of the product has been significantly improved, its application research level is changing with each passing day. There are more than 130 konjac varieties confirmed now, 21 kinds of which are distributed in China, 9 kinds of which are endemic to China (there are also 30 kinds of which in China, 13 kinds of which are endemic to China). Konjac is the most valuable ingredient in grape mannan (KGM), konjac can provide a large amount of the main economic crops of glucomannan. But not all varieties can synthesize KGM. The varieties with abundant KGM mainly include konjac flower, white konjac, konjac sparsely hairy, dongchuan konjac, etc. The quality of white konjac is the best, and the content of KGM is higher than that of Konjac, but the yield of konjac is higher than that of white konjac, and it is more suitable for cultivation in vast mountainous areas. At present, a large number of Chinese plants and processing is konjac.
Konjac food is rich in dietary fiber, is generally not easy to be digested food nutrients. Dietary fiber is one of the essential elements of healthy diet. Its rich plant cellulose helps activate intestinal function and accelerate the excretion of harmful toxins in the body. Quantity of heat is low, the dietary pleasure that satisfies people adequately won't add fat at the same time, need not go on a diet painstakingly, can achieve balanced diet. Rich in grape mannan, it effectively stimulates the intestinal wall and keeps the intestine clean. A large amount of soluble plant fiber can promote gastrointestinal peristalsis, reduce the retention time of harmful substances in the gastrointestinal tract and bile duct, effectively protect the gastric mucosa and clean the gastric wall.
Konjac is a traditional medicine and food
Konjac was first listed as a medicine more than 2,000 years ago in shennong Bencao Jing, and its medicinal and health benefits have been described in ancient medical books of the later Liang dynasty, Song Dynasty, Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. Compendium of Materia Medica and historical records of materia medica record: Konjac cold, spicy taste, "tuber medicine, detoxification, swelling, phlegm, loose knot, silt and other functions." It is often used to treat coughs, hernias, breast pain, scrofula, burns, etc. Long decoction for internal use both stomach, pig digestion. "Pounded, boiled into cake with ash juice, five flavor food, the Lord quench thirst". There are also many records of medicinal use in Japan, but all of them were later in China. For example, "Tacca, hot, cold and poisonous" is described in Yi Ban Bencao. Pounded, boiled into cake with ash juice, five harmonized and food, the Lord thirst. Living halberd person throat bleeding. Indications pain swelling wind poison, wipe swollen place, can treat intestinal wind ". Konjac is the konjac. "Konjac is the most beneficial for men because it removes sediment from the stomach, but I don't know how it works. It can also treat tuberculosis, but other patients should not eat more.
Konjac is a traditional plant food in China. It was recorded as early as shu Du Fu in wenxuan, a collection of poems from the Six Dynasties period in China. Japanese poet Genshun ji's work He Ming Jia Ju Ju (931-937) quoted, "Ju Ruo, Wenxuan Shu Du fu noted clouds. The betel ruo, whose roots are white, can be frozen when boiled in ash sauce and eaten with bitter sauce. Konjac from China was first introduced to Japan as a medicinal and snack snack, mainly used among monks as a precious gift. It was not until after Kamakura that it became popular as a common food.
Two, konjac health care role
From the nutritional point of view, konjac is a kind of food with low heat energy, low protein, low vitamin and high dietary fiber, and high dietary fiber is its effective nutritional component. Konjac powder is a concentration of effective nutrients, the main active ingredient is glucomannan, which belongs to soluble hemicellulose. Konjac's nutritional health care role is to play the role of dietary fiber in regulating nutritional imbalance, such as prevention and treatment of constipation, blood sugar, blood lipid, weight loss, etc. Konjac health care role has the following five points:
Prevention and treatment of constipation
Chronic functional (habitual) constipation is common, affecting 10% of the population in the United Kingdom and increasing with age, from 3% in the young to 20% in the elderly, similar in other developed countries. In China and developing countries, the incidence of constipation was not high in the past. With the refinement of diet and aging, constipation patients increased sharply. Most patients took laxative drugs themselves or jammed anal laxative drugs, and only a few people saw a doctor. Because of acute disease (if cerebrovascular accident, heart, lung, kidney function fails to wait) lie in bed patient has constipation more, keep defecate unobstructed it is necessary remedial measure.
Prevention of constipation is mainly to increase the content of dietary fiber in the diet, food in coarse grains, vegetables and fruits and konjac powder products are rich sources of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber absorbs water, increases fecal volume and improves intestinal flora; Intestinal bacteria ferment dietary fiber, producing low - grade fatty acids and stimulating peristalsis, which are conducive to defecation. For constipation patients, the clinical use of laxatives including five categories, namely, lubricity, relieve sexual, salts, power and volume class, the first four class of drugs used in some matters need attention, and volume class is fiber preparation, only by increasing the volume of excrement and urine, approximate natural bowel effect, but its effect is slow, it is an ideal drug chronic habitual constipation.
Studies at home and abroad have fully confirmed the effective effect of konjac and a variety of dietary fiber on the prevention and treatment of constipation.
Zhang Maoyu et al., West China Medical University, showed that the consumption of konjac by constipated patients can increase the daily wet weight of feces (equivalent to the weight gain of 11.4 grams of konjac powder) and fecal water content. It can shorten the time for food to move through the intestinal tract and the average time for a bowel movement; Can increase bifidobacterium count.
(2) Regulate lipid metabolism
Coronary heart disease has become one of the main causes of death. Disturbance of lipid metabolism can undoubtedly accelerate the progression of atherosclerosis. A large number of epidemiological investigations and experimental studies have confirmed that plasma cholesterol level is closely related to the incidence of athe
1. Introduction of raw materials
Konjac is a beneficial alkaline food, to eat too much animal acidic food, with konjac, can achieve food acid, alkali balance, good for human health. Konjac is the general name of araceae konjac genus plant, mainly produced in the eastern hemisphere tropical, subtropical, China is one of the origin, Sichuan, Hubei, Yunnan, Guizhou, Shaanxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan and other provinces are distributed in mountainous areas. Konjac has many kinds, according to statistics, there are more than 260 varieties in the world, and there are 19 kinds recorded in China, among which 8 kinds are unique to China. Konjac underground tuber oblate round, just like a large size water chestnut, nutrition is very rich, contains a variety of vitamins and potassium, phosphorus, selenium and other mineral elements, also contains human need konjac polysaccharide, and has the characteristics of low calorie, low fat and high cellulose.
Konjac food not only tastes delicious, pleasant taste, in recent years, popular all over the world, and is known as "magic food", "magic food", "health food". But konjac whole plant toxic, with tubers for the most, after poisoning the tongue, throat burning, itching pain, swelling, folk with vinegar and ginger juice a little, oral or gargle can be rescued. So konjac before eating must be ground, cooking, rinsing and other processing process detoxification.
2. Nutritional analysis
1. Moisten bowel laxation, reduce the absorption of fat: konjac fiber can promote gastrointestinal peristalsis, moisten bowel laxation;
2. Satisfy hunger and satiate: Konjac is low-heat food. The grapevine mannan contained in konjac will absorb water and expand, which can be increased to 30 ~ 100 times of its original volume, so that it feels full after eating and does not gain weight while satisfying the pleasure of eating.
3. Relevant people
It is an ideal food for the general population, especially those with diabetes and obesity.
4. Production guidance
Konjac production method: the konjac bulb root grinding into powder after adding water, made texture such as glue glue shape, and then add alkaline substances such as lime, so that it can be solidified.
1. Raw konjac is poisonous. It must be cooked for more than 3 hours before eating.
2. Do not eat medicinal residues to avoid poisoning;
3. Konjac underground tubers can be processed into konjac powder for eating, and can be made into konjac tofu, konjac noodle, konjac bread, konjac meat slices, juice konjac silk and other foods.
Liu Peiying zhang Shenglin
Konjac, a perennial herb of araceae, is widely distributed in mountainous areas of southwest China. It is a traditional food and medical resource in China and has great development potential in modern food processing industry.
First, the function of konjac glucomannan
The main economic component of konjac is glucomannan. Its chemical structure is heteropolysaccharide which is polymerized by β-1, 4-glycosidic bond of glucose and mannose residues with molecular ratio of 1:1.6 ~ 1.7. Glucomannan is a soluble hemicellulose, the seventh nutrient in the human body. Generally the insoluble fiber in fruit and vegetable, still with the prototype when ingested, the west China university research konjac glucan-mannan chitosan can be formed by intestinal bacteria produce hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and water and short key fatty acid by ion exchange action combined with enteric bladder acid, cholesterol is used to synthesis of bile acid content increased, thus reduce cholesterol in the blood. It also reduces the accumulation of gallstones during biliary tract excretion and reduces the formation and excretion of possible carcinogens from biliary yeast metabolites to prevent colon cancer. Konjac can also reduce triglyceride level, and blood lipid after reaching the normal level will not continue to decline, to regulate lipid metabolism, so as to reduce the incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease; As dietary fiber, glucomannan is not absorbed, does not contain calories, has a sense of satiation, and can reduce and delay the absorption of glucose, is a good auxiliary drug for diabetes, and can prevent obesity and slow weight loss. Glucomannan is a soluble fiber that absorbs and retains water, increases the volume and softness of stool through fermentation, and helps relieve constipation. Glucan-mannan chitosan is a kind of plant gum, but with other natural rubber such as xanthan gum, guar gum, locust bean gum and so on, compared to its higher viscosity, under lower PH to 3.8, still remain stable without precipitation, and other rubber such as xanthan gum and carrageenan compound with excellent synergy effect, can make the viscosity of xanthan gum increased greatly. When the ratio of konjac powder (glucomannan crude product) to xanthan gum was 3:2, the xanthan gum showed reversible gel and reached the maximum gel strength, but the xanthan gum could not gel. Konjac glucomannan has a wide range of application and development value because of its unique physical and chemical properties, such as water solubility, water retention thickening, stability, suspension, gelation, adhesion, film formation and so on.
In the food and beverage industry, glucomannan can be used as gelling agent, thickening agent, bonding water retention agent, stabilizer, film forming agent, etc.
Two, konjac gel food
There are two categories of konjac gel food, one is the heat irreversible gel, whose typical representatives are konjac tofu (cake, silk) and the derivative snow konjac, konjac vermicellin, konjac chip, konjac flower and bionic food, such as vegetarian shrimp, vegetarian kidney flower, vegetarian belly slice, vegetarian gluten, vegetarian duck intestine, vegetarian squid, vegetarian sea cucumber, jellyfish skin, meatball, etc. This food is a kind of irreversible gel in the high temperature (100 ℃), alkali (PH) make glucan-mannan glycan acetyl from on the branched chain, the molecules will join into a three-dimensional network structure, mesh between kept not the free flow of water, make the system into elastic solid, fully embodies the glucan-mannan formation for the sex and the water conservation, The gel can no longer return to a fluid state. The other is the heat reversible gel food if frozen, pudding, jam, fat-free fudge and so on in konjac glue or konjac compound glue reached a certain concentration at room temperature into jelly, if the temperature can be restored to the fluid state.
The main raw material of hot irreversible gel food is konjac powder. The quality and dosage of fine powder are the primary factors affecting the gel food, and the quality of the gel food is required to be neither soft nor hard, full of elasticity, good taste and less shrinkage. To achieve this requirement should be 1 konjac powder 30 ~ 35 parts of water. Consumers in different regions have different tastes. For example, soft taro is 35 times more popular in Tohoku, while hard taro is 30 times more popular in Kansai. The konjac made by farmers in Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Guizhou and Hubei is about 50 times that of soft konjac made with water. The quality of fine powder affects the multiple of adding water. If the viscosity of fine powder is 10000Mpa.s, 30 times of water can be added, the viscosity is 15000MPa.s, 32 times of water can be added, the viscosity is 20000 MPa.s, 35 times of water can be added.
Gel food is made into block, filamentous, pellet, hollow powder, etc., through shaping equipment. Block