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Function of konjac glucomannan and its application in food industry

Function of konjac glucomannan and its application in food industry

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  • Time of issue:2019-11-19 10:28
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(Summary description) Liu Peiying zhang Shenglin Konjac, a perennial herb of araceae, is widely distributed in mountainous areas of southwest China. It is a traditional food and medical resource in China and has great development potential in modern food processing industry. First, the function of konjac glucomannan The main economic component of konjac is glucomannan. Its chemical structure is heteropolysaccharide which is polymerized by β-1, 4-glycosidic bond of glucose and mannose residues with molecular ratio of 1:1.6 ~ 1.7. Glucomannan is a soluble hemicellulose, the seventh nutrient in the human body. Generally the insoluble fiber in fruit and vegetable, still with the prototype when ingested, the west China university research konjac glucan-mannan chitosan can be formed by intestinal bacteria produce hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and water and short key fatty acid by ion exchange action combined with enteric bladder acid, cholesterol is used to synthesis of bile acid content increased, thus reduce cholesterol in the blood. It also reduces the accumulation of gallstones during biliary tract excretion and reduces the formation and excretion of possible carcinogens from biliary yeast metabolites to prevent colon cancer. Konjac can also reduce triglyceride level, and blood lipid after reaching the normal level will not continue to decline, to regulate lipid metabolism, so as to reduce the incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease; As dietary fiber, glucomannan is not absorbed, does not contain calories, has a sense of satiation, and can reduce and delay the absorption of glucose, is a good auxiliary drug for diabetes, and can prevent obesity and slow weight loss. Glucomannan is a soluble fiber that absorbs and retains water, increases the volume and softness of stool through fermentation, and helps relieve constipation. Glucan-mannan chitosan is a kind of plant gum, but with other natural rubber such as xanthan gum, guar gum, locust bean gum and so on, compared to its higher viscosity, under lower PH to 3.8, still remain stable without precipitation, and other rubber such as xanthan gum and carrageenan compound with excellent synergy effect, can make the viscosity of xanthan gum increased greatly. When the ratio of konjac powder (glucomannan crude product) to xanthan gum was 3:2, the xanthan gum showed reversible gel and reached the maximum gel strength, but the xanthan gum could not gel. Konjac glucomannan has a wide range of application and development value because of its unique physical and chemical properties, such as water solubility, water retention thickening, stability, suspension, gelation, adhesion, film formation and so on. In the food and beverage industry, glucomannan can be used as gelling agent, thickening agent, bonding water retention agent, stabilizer, film forming agent, etc. Two, konjac gel food There are two categories of konjac gel food, one is the heat irreversible gel, whose typical representatives are konjac tofu (cake, silk) and the derivative snow konjac, konjac vermicellin, konjac chip, konjac flower and bionic food, such as vegetarian shrimp, vegetarian kidney flower, vegetarian belly slice, vegetarian gluten, vegetarian duck intestine, vegetarian squid, vegetarian sea cucumber, jellyfish skin, meatball, etc. This food is a kind of irreversible gel in the high temperature (100 ℃), alkali (PH) make glucan-mannan glycan acetyl from on the branched chain, the molecules will join into a three-dimensional network structure, mesh between kept not the free flow of water, make the system into elastic solid, fully embodies the glucan-mannan formation for the sex and the water conservation, The gel can no longer return to a fluid state. The other is the heat reversible gel food if frozen, pudding, jam, fat-free fudge and so on in konjac glue or konjac compound glue reached a certain concentration at room temperature into jelly, if the temperature can be restored to the fluid state. The main raw material of hot irreversible gel food is konjac powder. The quality and dosage of fine powder are the primary factors affecting the gel food, and the quality of the gel food is required to be neither soft nor hard, full of elasticity, good taste and less shrinkage. To achieve this requirement should be 1 konjac powder 30 ~ 35 parts of water. Consumers in different regions have different tastes. For example, soft taro is 35 times more popular in Tohoku, while hard taro is 30 times more popular in Kansai. The konjac made by farmers in Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Guizhou and Hubei is about 50 times that of soft konjac made with water. The quality of fine powder affects the multiple of adding water. If the viscosity of fine powder is 10000Mpa.s, 30 times of water can be added, the viscosity is 15000MPa.s, 32 times of water can be added, the viscosity is 20000 MPa.s, 35 times of water can be added. Gel food is made into block, filamentous, pellet, hollow powder, etc., through shaping equipment. Block

Function of konjac glucomannan and its application in food industry

(Summary description)

Liu Peiying zhang Shenglin

Konjac, a perennial herb of araceae, is widely distributed in mountainous areas of southwest China. It is a traditional food and medical resource in China and has great development potential in modern food processing industry.
First, the function of konjac glucomannan
The main economic component of konjac is glucomannan. Its chemical structure is heteropolysaccharide which is polymerized by β-1, 4-glycosidic bond of glucose and mannose residues with molecular ratio of 1:1.6 ~ 1.7. Glucomannan is a soluble hemicellulose, the seventh nutrient in the human body. Generally the insoluble fiber in fruit and vegetable, still with the prototype when ingested, the west China university research konjac glucan-mannan chitosan can be formed by intestinal bacteria produce hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and water and short key fatty acid by ion exchange action combined with enteric bladder acid, cholesterol is used to synthesis of bile acid content increased, thus reduce cholesterol in the blood. It also reduces the accumulation of gallstones during biliary tract excretion and reduces the formation and excretion of possible carcinogens from biliary yeast metabolites to prevent colon cancer. Konjac can also reduce triglyceride level, and blood lipid after reaching the normal level will not continue to decline, to regulate lipid metabolism, so as to reduce the incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease; As dietary fiber, glucomannan is not absorbed, does not contain calories, has a sense of satiation, and can reduce and delay the absorption of glucose, is a good auxiliary drug for diabetes, and can prevent obesity and slow weight loss. Glucomannan is a soluble fiber that absorbs and retains water, increases the volume and softness of stool through fermentation, and helps relieve constipation. Glucan-mannan chitosan is a kind of plant gum, but with other natural rubber such as xanthan gum, guar gum, locust bean gum and so on, compared to its higher viscosity, under lower PH to 3.8, still remain stable without precipitation, and other rubber such as xanthan gum and carrageenan compound with excellent synergy effect, can make the viscosity of xanthan gum increased greatly. When the ratio of konjac powder (glucomannan crude product) to xanthan gum was 3:2, the xanthan gum showed reversible gel and reached the maximum gel strength, but the xanthan gum could not gel. Konjac glucomannan has a wide range of application and development value because of its unique physical and chemical properties, such as water solubility, water retention thickening, stability, suspension, gelation, adhesion, film formation and so on.
In the food and beverage industry, glucomannan can be used as gelling agent, thickening agent, bonding water retention agent, stabilizer, film forming agent, etc.
Two, konjac gel food
There are two categories of konjac gel food, one is the heat irreversible gel, whose typical representatives are konjac tofu (cake, silk) and the derivative snow konjac, konjac vermicellin, konjac chip, konjac flower and bionic food, such as vegetarian shrimp, vegetarian kidney flower, vegetarian belly slice, vegetarian gluten, vegetarian duck intestine, vegetarian squid, vegetarian sea cucumber, jellyfish skin, meatball, etc. This food is a kind of irreversible gel in the high temperature (100 ℃), alkali (PH) make glucan-mannan glycan acetyl from on the branched chain, the molecules will join into a three-dimensional network structure, mesh between kept not the free flow of water, make the system into elastic solid, fully embodies the glucan-mannan formation for the sex and the water conservation, The gel can no longer return to a fluid state. The other is the heat reversible gel food if frozen, pudding, jam, fat-free fudge and so on in konjac glue or konjac compound glue reached a certain concentration at room temperature into jelly, if the temperature can be restored to the fluid state.
The main raw material of hot irreversible gel food is konjac powder. The quality and dosage of fine powder are the primary factors affecting the gel food, and the quality of the gel food is required to be neither soft nor hard, full of elasticity, good taste and less shrinkage. To achieve this requirement should be 1 konjac powder 30 ~ 35 parts of water. Consumers in different regions have different tastes. For example, soft taro is 35 times more popular in Tohoku, while hard taro is 30 times more popular in Kansai. The konjac made by farmers in Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Guizhou and Hubei is about 50 times that of soft konjac made with water. The quality of fine powder affects the multiple of adding water. If the viscosity of fine powder is 10000Mpa.s, 30 times of water can be added, the viscosity is 15000MPa.s, 32 times of water can be added, the viscosity is 20000 MPa.s, 35 times of water can be added.
Gel food is made into block, filamentous, pellet, hollow powder, etc., through shaping equipment. Block

  • Categories:Knowledge
  • Author:
  • Origin:
  • Time of issue:2019-11-19 10:28
  • Views:
Information

Liu Peiying zhang Shenglin

Konjac, a perennial herb of araceae, is widely distributed in mountainous areas of southwest China. It is a traditional food and medical resource in China and has great development potential in modern food processing industry.
First, the function of konjac glucomannan
The main economic component of konjac is glucomannan. Its chemical structure is heteropolysaccharide which is polymerized by β-1, 4-glycosidic bond of glucose and mannose residues with molecular ratio of 1:1.6 ~ 1.7. Glucomannan is a soluble hemicellulose, the seventh nutrient in the human body. Generally the insoluble fiber in fruit and vegetable, still with the prototype when ingested, the west China university research konjac glucan-mannan chitosan can be formed by intestinal bacteria produce hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and water and short key fatty acid by ion exchange action combined with enteric bladder acid, cholesterol is used to synthesis of bile acid content increased, thus reduce cholesterol in the blood. It also reduces the accumulation of gallstones during biliary tract excretion and reduces the formation and excretion of possible carcinogens from biliary yeast metabolites to prevent colon cancer. Konjac can also reduce triglyceride level, and blood lipid after reaching the normal level will not continue to decline, to regulate lipid metabolism, so as to reduce the incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease; As dietary fiber, glucomannan is not absorbed, does not contain calories, has a sense of satiation, and can reduce and delay the absorption of glucose, is a good auxiliary drug for diabetes, and can prevent obesity and slow weight loss. Glucomannan is a soluble fiber that absorbs and retains water, increases the volume and softness of stool through fermentation, and helps relieve constipation. Glucan-mannan chitosan is a kind of plant gum, but with other natural rubber such as xanthan gum, guar gum, locust bean gum and so on, compared to its higher viscosity, under lower PH to 3.8, still remain stable without precipitation, and other rubber such as xanthan gum and carrageenan compound with excellent synergy effect, can make the viscosity of xanthan gum increased greatly. When the ratio of konjac powder (glucomannan crude product) to xanthan gum was 3:2, the xanthan gum showed reversible gel and reached the maximum gel strength, but the xanthan gum could not gel. Konjac glucomannan has a wide range of application and development value because of its unique physical and chemical properties, such as water solubility, water retention thickening, stability, suspension, gelation, adhesion, film formation and so on.
In the food and beverage industry, glucomannan can be used as gelling agent, thickening agent, bonding water retention agent, stabilizer, film forming agent, etc.
Two, konjac gel food
There are two categories of konjac gel food, one is the heat irreversible gel, whose typical representatives are konjac tofu (cake, silk) and the derivative snow konjac, konjac vermicellin, konjac chip, konjac flower and bionic food, such as vegetarian shrimp, vegetarian kidney flower, vegetarian belly slice, vegetarian gluten, vegetarian duck intestine, vegetarian squid, vegetarian sea cucumber, jellyfish skin, meatball, etc. This food is a kind of irreversible gel in the high temperature (100 ℃), alkali (PH) make glucan-mannan glycan acetyl from on the branched chain, the molecules will join into a three-dimensional network structure, mesh between kept not the free flow of water, make the system into elastic solid, fully embodies the glucan-mannan formation for the sex and the water conservation, The gel can no longer return to a fluid state. The other is the heat reversible gel food if frozen, pudding, jam, fat-free fudge and so on in konjac glue or konjac compound glue reached a certain concentration at room temperature into jelly, if the temperature can be restored to the fluid state.
The main raw material of hot irreversible gel food is konjac powder. The quality and dosage of fine powder are the primary factors affecting the gel food, and the quality of the gel food is required to be neither soft nor hard, full of elasticity, good taste and less shrinkage. To achieve this requirement should be 1 konjac powder 30 ~ 35 parts of water. Consumers in different regions have different tastes. For example, soft taro is 35 times more popular in Tohoku, while hard taro is 30 times more popular in Kansai. The konjac made by farmers in Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Guizhou and Hubei is about 50 times that of soft konjac made with water. The quality of fine powder affects the multiple of adding water. If the viscosity of fine powder is 10000Mpa.s, 30 times of water can be added, the viscosity is 15000MPa.s, 32 times of water can be added, the viscosity is 20000 MPa.s, 35 times of water can be added.
Gel food is made into block, filamentous, pellet, hollow powder, etc., through shaping equipment. Block can be deformed into strip, ding, flake, triangle, and silk can be deformed into silk knot, silk ball, thread coil, etc. Bionic food such as vegetarian shrimp, vegetarian kidney flowers and so on are made through the shaping equipment. But we should pay attention to do konjac silk on the quality of fine powder requirements are particularly high, generally choose "white konjac" variety, add water multiple is also a little less.
In the past with fresh konjac bulb direct production of konjac food, are brown due to Browning, Japan also add seaweed powder to make black brown, and with modern processing means of konjac powder is white, so the product is white, but in order to increase the color on the table, can also be added into light red, light green, light yellow and other colors.
Konjac gel food can add seaweed powder, vegetable protein, sesame, pepper powder, but their main process is still the same. After mixing and gelatinizing konjac fine powder with water, stand for 1-2 hours to let the fine powder fully swell, in the refining machine, the solidifying agent calcium oxide (dosage is 3% of the fine powder, add water to dissolve first) and konjac paste fully and quickly mix, immediately through the shaping equipment to shape into blocks, silk, bionic, etc.. This process can also be done easily in the home kitchen, ready to make this health food.
Heat reversible gel foods such as jelly, pudding, fruit jelly, chocolate jelly, jam, etc., add konjac glucomannan to gel and play the role of stabilizer. Moderate elasticity, crisp and refreshing, less dehydration, no cracking. Production method is to use high quality konjac powder, the amount of juice about 0.5-0.6%, and sugar mixing evenly, in the water temperature is not higher than 40% stirring conditions slowly add sugar pot, when the temperature rises to 80℃, ingredients. Bring to a boil, cool and filter.
Konjac glucomannan as a food and beverage additive
Konjac has been cultivated and eaten in China and Japan since ancient times. On February 16, 1998, The Ministry of Health of China officially listed konjac as a new food resource for general food management in document No. 9 of the Ministry of Health supervision and Development [1998]. It is neither cultivated nor eaten in European and American countries except as specimens in botanical gardens. It was not until the 1990s that konjac was accepted as an additive, and was officially announced. The United States is in 1997 by the United States Food and drug administration (FDA) approved as a food additive, published in the United States food additives specification (FCC) 4th edition, set physical and chemical indicators than the standard of our country a lot of loose. It was approved/registered for use in foodstuffs in the European Union in official Gazette no. L295127, E-425 of 4 November 1998. Konjac glucomannan is widely used as food and beverage additive because of its many excellent properties.
(a) in meat products such as ham sausage, lunch meat, chicken balls, fish balls added to play the role of bonding, refreshing and increasing volume.
(2) In dairy products such as milk, fermented yogurt, blended yogurt, condensed milk, shake milk, AD calcium milk, straight acid coagulated yogurt and other products play a stabilizing role. In particular, the production of straight sour curd yoghurt completely breaks through the forbidden area that protein drinks can not be directly acidified, and enters into industrial production, but also extends the shelf life, which can be preserved for 3 months in bottles at room temperature, and is not condensed, not clarified and not stratified in cans for 12 months. The dosage is about 0.30-0.35%. Acidity control ≤0.35% is the best taste. The method of use is to mix konjac gum powder and 10 times the weight of sugar, add it into the sugar pot slowly under the stirring condition of water temperature not higher than 40℃, heat up to 80℃, after it is completely dissolved, add milk powder, sugar, quality improver and flavoring agent. Heating to boiling, cooling, filtration, high pressure homogenization.
(three) in soybean products such as special bean curd, bean flower, bean milk, fruit soy milk, fruit and vegetable juice soy milk, etc. play a good role in stabilizing agent and prolong the storage period, can be packed within 12 months without oil out, do not coagulate, do not float, do not precipitate. The dosage is about 0.15-0.25%. The best PH value of 6.8-7.0, the best taste, bean fragrance more prominent. The method of use is the same as that of (2). It should be noted that konjac glue stabilizer must be involved in the process of protein heating. When packing, air must be fully pumped to prevent Browning.
(4) In drinks such as almond milk, coconut milk, peanut milk, walnut milk, granular orange, fruit juice, fruit tea, all kinds of solid drinks and eight-treasure porridge, etc. play the role of thickening water holding and stabilizing agent, prolong the retention period. The flavor is best when the dosage is 0.15-0.4% and PH value is 6.5. Use the method as before. French almond can not be treated with salt water, peanut kernel baking temperature of about 170℃-190℃, time about 1 minutes, cooked without coke, crisp and not yellow, red easy to go to the requirements.
(five) in the cold food such as ice cream, ice cream, Popsicle, ice cream, borneol, two eat ice, chewing ice and so on play a good stabilizer, to prevent the generation of ice crystals.
(6) in the candy such as all kinds of soft candy, kraft candy, crystal candy and so on play a gel and enhance the taste.
(7) Film products such as edible packaging materials, paper food, lala wide food, lala long food is made of konjac glucomannan film.
(8) In noodles, gua noodles, instant noodles, noodles, noodles, shahe noodles, rice noodles, noodles, noodles, steamed bread, steamed buns, dumplings, bread, cakes, souffles, cookies and other cakes to play a good role in bonding, water retention, strengthening, maintaining quality. Noodles, vermicola add konjac after the taste is smooth, continuous section, not mud back to the pot, bread, steamed bread and other shelf time. Wheat in China is generally not a special wheat variety suitable for bread, so konjac powder must be added. The amount of konjac powder added is about 0.5% of flour or rice flour. If it is konjac powder (120 mesh) can be directly added to flour or rice flour, mixed directly with water, if it is konjac powder (60-120 mesh) should be pasted with water for 2 hours before flour. If the dosage of konjac powder is too small, the effect will be weakened, but if the dosage is too large, because glucomannan can absorb water up to 100 times, it will make bread, noodles and other excessive swelling, although there is a feeling of satiation, but not prolonged, this is a very good auxiliary therapeutic food for reducing the energy intake of diabetes patients.
Konjac is a mountain area crops, general production environment is good, the air, soil and water quality are almost no pollution, according to the request of food processing equipment are konjac industry manufacture of special equipment, its products can reach the requirement of green food, konjac itself but also has health care effect, so the konjac industry is regarded as the sunrise industry of the 21st century, In Yunnan, Guizhou and other provinces gradually replacing tobacco industry. Since its establishment in 1997, konjac association has united konjac colleagues to improve product quality and broaden the use to further open up domestic and foreign markets and seek rapid and healthy development of the industry. At present, konjac industry in some enterprises konjac powder and purified konjac powder and powder and a variety of special additives, has reached the international high quality requirements, can meet the requirements of various industries. Therefore, konjac hopes to strengthen the association with food, beverage, food processing industry and health, medical and other industries, but also especially hope to strengthen the association with baking and western food industry, jointly develop and use this advantage of resources in Our country.

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